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It seeks to understand the current distribution channel structures of various hotel ownership modes; to explore the ways in which a number of factors influence distribution structures; and to examine the implications of these structures and factors for hotel and tourism development in Vietnam and in other economies with similar socio-political characteristics. A conceptual framework for hotel distribution channels is developed from a combination of the predominantly Western literature and the fragmented literature on hotel distribution in transition economies. The conceptual framework enables the researcher to investigate the linkages and relationships among the components that constitute the current Vietnamese hotel distribution systems.

A qualitative approach is applied to address the supply-side issues of hotel distribution with data collected in the three largest urban cities located in the Northern, Central and Southern parts of Vietnam.

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The data collection methods were in-depth semi-structured interviews and document compilation. Different groups of participants from the Vietnam tourism industry including senior staff of sales and marketing of the four- and five-star hotels, international tour operators, high-ranking government officials of central and provincial authorities of tourism, key officers of trade organisations and academics from these cities were interviewed.

The research presents the current distribution channel structures employed by four hotel ownership modes to reach domestic and international travellers.

Urbanization and sustainability under transitional economies: a synthesis for Asian Russia

The findings also reveal that international joint venture and wholly foreign-owned hotels have effectively established their distribution channels to reach the international market. Name: thesis. Size: 4. Emerging disintegrative processes are reflected in the market customer behavior, followed by the phenomenon of negative customer adaptation to the turbulent environment.

The phenomenon, which was previously considered as disadvantageous or even pathological, is now more commonly approached by customers in a very liberal way.

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In these circumstances, customer behavior pathology-related issues concerning the financial market present one of the most interesting economic subjects, both theoretically and practically. The purpose of the paper was to investigate types of pathologies in customer behavior concerning financial transitional European markets. Another very important purpose of the paper was to develop a theoretical-descriptive model of customer behavior pathologies on the financial market.

Transition Economies

To reach the above-presented purposes, a survey was conducted with the use of a structured questionnaire in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The beginning of the 21st Century is characterized by significant acceleration of various types of changes in the world, especially in transitional economies Mruk , p. These changes generate important conditions for consumer behavior on financial markets, and may have both positive and negative effect on consumer behavior, which has been well demonstrated in the recent global economic crisis.

Marketing Issues and Challenges in Transitional Economies | SpringerLink

It is worth noting that the current crisis is of a system character and spreads as a result of correlations which are typical of the globalization process Kotodko , p. Difficulties caused by the crisis across the whole economy, instigated by constant transformation processes, often result in various social problems including alcoholism, drug addiction, crime, divorce, suicide, mental and social diseases, failure of social care and education, abuse in the family, etc.

Hence, it can be stated that the rate of changes in the transitional economics is bigger than consumers' awareness of the ongoing changes and their ability to grasp the processes. The emerging disintegrative processes are reflected in the consumer market behavior and lead to a phenomenon of consumers' negative adaptation to this reality. Systematically, consumers tend to take a more liberal approach towards phenomena that only recently were considered negative or even pathological.

Bearing in mind the above, it was necessary to investigate types of pathologies in customer behavior in the European financial transition markets. A very important purpose of the paper was also to develop a theoretical-descriptive model of customer behavior pathologies on financial markets. Pathology constitutes a very diverse concept, not straightforwardly defined in specialist literature.