It is rather suggested that the current structures and instruments be extended to accommodate the constitutional objects and developmental duties of local government as outlined in sections and of the Constitution. It is further suggested that consideration should be given to adapting an additional framework that would promote the fusing of matters of cultural diversity, cultural heritage, cultural rights and the promotion of the creative cultural industry at grassroots level in furtherance of the principles laid out in the international standard-setting documents discussed in this article.
Land and soils
The infiltration of culture into the contemporary understanding of sustainable development has been explored and its potential contribution to the advancement of sustainable development has been highlighted in this article. The need to recognise the cultural dimension of sustainable development is promoted on the platform of human development.
Human development has been described as human capacity expansion, which includes improved access to resources, including cultural resources. It has also been established in this article that human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, and that developmental processes must actively recognise the role of culture in delivering human development to communities. The explicit and implicit provision for cultural matters in relation to sustainable development in the Constitution and related statutes and policies make the governance of cultural issues for sustainable development essential to give force to the recognition of issues of culture in the pursuit of sustainable development.
In furtherance of the governance of culture-related issues in the pursuit of sustainable development, the requirement for cooperative governance provides the platform for the three spheres of government to be actively involved in the advancement of cultural diversity, cultural heritage, cultural rights and the culture industry in the pursuit of sustainable development. The need for an integrated approach is supported by the view that the notion of sustainable development is promoted by the interdependency and interrelation of the traditional economic, environmental, social and cultural dimensions.
In addition, the effective governance of the cultural dimension manifested as described in this article would ultimately contribute to providing optimal conditions for achieving economic, environmental and social developmental goals in South Africa. In order to achieve the pursuit of sustainable development, the cultural law and governance framework in South Africa should be integrated into developmental planning at the national, provincial and local government levels.
In view of this, two recommendations are advanced:. It is the view of the author that through the instrumentality of local government bye-laws and the explicit increased inclusion of local government in national and provincial cultural law and governance, the ideal of sustainable development can be greatly advanced via the cultural dimension. The rationale behind this recommendation is the fact that issues of culture are most greatly reflected at the grassroots level, which is the area of governance for the local government.
Its role would be beneficial as it could potentially be the "conscience of the state governance structure" and aid the monitoring of the governance of cultural issues in furtherance of sustainable development. This might be achieved by allowing more civil society engagement in the formulation of cultural policies, thereby increasing public participation in the formulation of strategies for sustainable development via the cultural dimension.
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It is believed that these recommendations are not exhaustive, but could serve as a departure point for further research into the pursuit of sustainable development via the cultural dimension in South Africa. Ako "Challenges to Sustainable Development". Barnard PELJ. Bennett Customary Law. Boer Willamette L Rev. Dugard International Law. Fuo Local Government's Role.
Sustainable Development Goals - Wikipedia
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United Nations. United Nations Development Program. United Nations Sustainable Development Journal. World Commission on Culture and Development. World Conference on Cultural Policies. World Commission on Environment and Development. Looking across the global trade and investment landscape, it proposes a set of key game changers, emerging issues, and enduring challenges that raise questions for conversations on the future of the GTIA. As a scoping exercise designed to spur conversations among experts, the paper does not take positions on where reforms are most urgent or advocate particular options.
However, we do view the architecture as open and evolving, where change is a constant. It also reflects the multiple and sometimes competing goals for international cooperation on trade and investment. As such we emphasise the need for critical examination of assumptions on the visions and principles as well as the purposes and rationales—economic, strategic, political, social and environmental—that shape international cooperation on trade and investment and associated governance arrangements.
It also serves numerous practical functions ranging from the provision of platforms for negotiation and dispute settlement to the provision of Aid for Trade. Across the ecosystem, a diversity of actors—governments, industry, international organisations, research institutions and civil society groups—have and exert different kinds of power.
Material resources and economic might are clearly at play, but power is also expressed through legal agreements, through ideas embedded in policy advice and capacity building, and through discourse. The architecture thus reflects wider political and economic power relations—and asymmetries—and is also a framework through which power dynamics are expressed. Some players are dominant across the system and some on discrete parts of the architecture; while large multinational enterprises MNEs drive agendas for inter-governmental cooperation on many trade and investment issues, civil society groups play a leading role on the incorporation of many social and environmental considerations.
Although widely analysed as two separate legal regimes, with distinct foundations, there are strong grounds for considering these together in this scoping exercise—the growing intersections of flows mentioned above; the push to widen the regulation of international investment to better serve sustainable development priorities; the growing number of agreements that already link trade and investment; and the fact that responses to many social and environmental challenges call for coherent approaches to the international regulation of both trade and investment.
The call to combine considerations of the future of the trade and investment architectures reflects this latter quest for greater coherence and the need for constructive discussion; it does not imply a position for or against a more unified global or multilateral architecture nor a view on what it might look like. Debates and questions on the future of the GTIA can be usefully clustered into four themes, namely: its scope; its existing and potential governance functions; its internal complexity; and its links to wider global governance processes.
On scope, for instance, there are numerous questions about the principles that should undergird international cooperation on trade and investment as well as about issues, existing and emerging, that demand greater attention within the architecture or require new collaborative frameworks. The internal complexity and fragmentation of the GTIA raises questions about subsidiarity, the intersection of its many rules, and the division of labour among a plethora of inter-governmental institutions and processes, as well as the appropriate response to the rise of private sector initiatives.
There are also numerous debates on how the GTIA can be better informed by wider global governance processes and contribute to these. Primer on Polar Warming. Primer on Hydrofluorocarbons. Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants. June 20, Study: U. As things stand, oil and gas companies and other climate polluters are paying none of these costs.