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With bright, vibrant colors and amazing photography, these six page visually stunning books invite students to explore and discover the world of science. Key facts and terms are described on each page. Colorful photographs are labeled for easy identification. Factoscope boxes highlight important points of text. The Earth system comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. Earth science includes the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans, and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. The reproducible activity pages supplement earth science textbooks with stand-alone or coordinate one-page lessons.

Scientific terms are defined in context. Identical dramatic four-color covers back cover band identifies books that are lower level. Teacher's Guides with reproducible activities allow students to work from either text. Glossary defines difficult terms. The size of a river depends on the amount of rainfall and snowfall in the watershed areas.

They are mainly formed by the process of glacial action. During the Pleistocene epoch, the glaciers brought in large ice sheets eroding the land. Lakes can be man-made too. Land of the Thousand Lakes Finland is known as the land of the thousand lakes. It has about , lakes. Delta A delta is a triangular area at the mouth of a river before it merges with the sea or ocean. River currents deposit alluvial soil at deltas before flowing into the sea or ocean. Inland Delta An inland delta is formed when a river divides into multiple branches in an inland area, only to rejoin and continue to the sea.

They receive only enough rainfall to support grasses; therefore other plants and trees are rare in grasslands. Grasslands are drier than forests but not as dry as deserts. Tropical grasslands and temperate grasslands are two types of grasslands. Anthropogenic Grasslands Grasslands created and maintained by human activity are called anthropogenic grasslands.

Xeric Grasslands Xeric grasslands are sparse grasslands located in deserts. Deserts D eserts are extremely dry regions. Deserts receive less than 10 inches of rainfall every year. The sand absorbs much heat during the daytime and releases it at night. Montane Deserts Montane deserts are arid places at a very high altitude. Ergs Large sand dune fields in the deserts are known as ergs. They are found all over the world and provide human beings with a lot of natural resources. They are home to many species of plants and animals and form a complex ecosystem.

Types of Forests There are four major types of forests: rain forest, taiga, temperate hardwood forest, and tropical dry forest. Rainforests Rainforests are very dense, warm, wet forests, with normal annual rainfall between 6 feet and 9 feet. Volcano A volcano is a geological landform, usually in the shape of a mountain. Volcanoes are of three types: active, dormant, and extinct. Lava When magma erupts through the planet's surface it is called lava.

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Magma Magma is molten rock within the planet's crust. It forms when the water of a river suddenly falls over a rock cliff. Waterfalls are formed more often in mountain regions because the process of erosion is rapid. Some types of waterfalls are block, cascade, and cataract.

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Angel Falls Angel Falls, located in Venezuela, is the world's highest waterfall at 3, feet. Jurong Falls Jurong Falls, located in Singapore, is said to be the highest man-made waterfall in the world. Glacier G laciers are masses of ice and snow that accumulate at high altitudes and flow like a river.

When the yearly snowfall exceeds the amount of snow that melts in the summers, in a particular region, then layers of snow are formed.

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This mass of snow grows bigger and heavier over the years and starts moving slowly under its own weight and gravity. This moving mass of ice is called a glacier. A temperate glacier is a glacier that is at the melting point throughout the year from the surface to the base of the glacier. Polar Glacier A polar glacier is a glacier that is always below the freezing point with maximum mass loss due to sublimation. They are usually formed from the action of rivers.

They have very steep sides and are usually made of sandstones or granite. Submarine Canyons Submarine canyons are those which are formed underwater, generally at the mouths of rivers.

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Slot Canyons Slot canyons are very narrow canyons, often with smooth walls. Caves A cave is an opening beneath the surface of the earth. Caves are formed because of several reasons, such as erosion of coastal bedrock, partial melting of glaciers, and solidification of lava into hollow tubes. Caves are found in many types of rocks, but they are most common in limestone and gypsum. Troglobite A troglobite is an animal that lives entirely in the dark parts of caves.

Speleology Speleology is the scientific exploration and study of all aspects of caves. This is the rock cycle. Igneous rocks change into sedimentary. Sedimentary rocks change into metamorphic rocks, and then they change back to their original forms over thousands of years. Erosion Erosion causes rocks to wear away. Water and wind are the chief eroding forces. Sediment Sediment is deposited by running water into lakes and oceans, which as a result of compaction and compression can became consolidated sedimentary rocks.

Gold, for example, always contains impurities. Igneous Rock I gneous rocks are formed by the cooling of molten rocks. Deep inside the planet high temperature and pressure melts the rocks. This molten rock or magma comes out during volcanic eruptions, which gradually cool down to form igneous rocks. Examples of igneous rocks include granite and basalt. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies within Earth. Extrusive Igneous Rocks Extrusive igneous rocks are formed at Earth's surface when hot magma from inside Earth flows out onto the surface as lava.

The changes in these rocks take place due to the high temperature and pressure inside Earth. Examples of metamorphic rocks are slate and marble. Metasomatism Metasomatism is the drastic change in the chemical composition of a rock during the process of metamorphism. Metamorphic Rock Textures There are five basic metamorphic textures: slaty, schistose, gneissose, granoblastic, and hornfelsic. Sedimentary Rock S edimentary rocks are formed of loose rock particles, minerals, plants, and animal materials that accumulate together.

They can form on the surface of Earth or under the oceans. Chalk, limestone, and sandstone are some of the common sedimentary rocks. Formation of Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary rocks are formed in four main ways. Diagenesis Diagenesis describes all the types of changes undergone by sediment after its initial deposition. They have existed on the planet since prehistoric times. More than , species of plants are known to exist on Earth.

Plants are immovable organisms. They are made of different parts such as roots, stems, flowers, fruits, and leaves. The roots of a plant are attached to the soil.

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Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make carbohydrates using light, carbon dioxide, and water with oxygen as a waste product. Plants are autotrophs. Coral A coral is a small marine animal. Live corals are made of polyps, while dead corals are hard and stony. Young corals are larvae that flow along with the oceanic currents. Once they find a hard bottom they attach themselves and quickly change into polyps.

Zooxanthellae Algae that live inside corals and help form the coral's stony exoskeleton are known as zooxanthellae. Coral Reefs Coral reefs are structures consisting of coral skeletons built upon coral skeletons. They are cold-blooded, scaly, vertebrate animals. Crocodiles, snakes, tortoises, and lizards are some of the common reptiles. Lizards and snakes, turtles and tortoises, crocodiles and alligators, and tuatara are the four groups of reptiles.

Crocodile Crocodiles are huge semi-aquatic reptiles with a long snout. Alligators Alligators are like crocodiles but have a shorter and broader snout. Sea Animals O ceans are rich in animal life. They are home to several organisms from tiny fish to the gigantic blue whales.

More than a hundred mammals are also found in the oceans. These include whales and dolphins. Whale Whales are marine mammals that are of two types: toothed and baleen.


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Some of these animals have thick coats of white fur. Some of the polar animals hibernate during the cold season. Some animals, such as the Arctic tern, migrate during the extreme cold winters. Polar Bear The polar bear, a large bear native to the Arctic, is also known as the white bear, northern bear, or sea bear. Amphibians on Earth A mphibians are vertebrates that include animals such as frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders.

They appeared on the earth in the Devonian period.


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They are believed to be the first vertebrates to live on land. Amphibians are found throughout the world. Herpetology The study of amphibians and reptiles is known as herpetology. Tadpole A tadpole is a larva of an amphibian, the juvenile form of a frog, toad, newt, salamander, or caecilian. Carnivorous mammals are divided into two groups: the pinnipedia and fissipedia. Pinnipedia have fin-like feet while fissipedia have paw-like feet.


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